News Improving The Developer Experience of Your APIs

Enterprise Documentation

Recent changes

You are viewing a previous version of KrakenD Enterprise Edition (v2.4) , go to the latest version

Response manipulation with templates

Document updated on Aug 28, 2023

The response body generator lets you write a whole new payload using a template that has access to all the response data. In addition to the payload from the backend, you can incorporate other information such as headers, status codes, query strings, or URL parameters.

You can add validations, data transformation, and other valuable operations as you work with a template.

Modify the body with templates

The modifier/response-body-generator lets you change the content from a backend response or the aggregated result after merging in an endpoint.

You can manipulate data with any encoding you choose, including no-op. You can access the status codes and the headers in the template when using no-op (and only in this case).

The data you return is defined by a template that you write in an external file or embed inline in the configuration as a base64 string.

For example, the following response.json.tmpl represents a body in JSON format you would return from your backend and takes data from additional places:

  "data": {{ toJson .resp_body }},
  "status_code": {{ toJson .resp_status }},
  "headers": {{ toJson .resp_headers }},

The .resp_body is what the user would have gotten if they had contacted the backend directly. Instead, in the example above, we are putting it in a new key, data, and adding the status code and headers in the response (the endpoint must be no-op in this case). The toJson function converts the response field structure into a JSON object.

The example template renders into a JSON format, but you could use any other form. The configuration option content_type lets the consumer know (or additional KrakenD components) how to treat this content. In this case, it should be application/json to match our written content.

Configuration for the response body generator

The response body generator modifier has the following options available:

Fields of Template-based body generator
* required fields
Minimum configuration needs one of: path , or template

The Content-Type you are generating in the template, so it can be recognized by whoever is using it.
Examples: "application/json" , "application/xml" , "text/xml"
Defaults to "application/json"

When true, shows useful information in the logs with DEBUG level about the input received and the body generated. Do not enable in production. Debug logs are multiline and designed fore developer readibility, not machine processing.
Defaults to false

The path to the Go template file you want to use to craft the body.
Example: "./path/to.tmpl"

An inline base64 encoded Go template with the body you want to generate. This option is useful if you want to have the template embedded in the configuration instead of an external file.

Template variables

When you write the template’s content, you do it in a template. The template engine parses the content and replaces variables with the format {{ .variable }}, but you can use all the power of templates and introduce conditionals, loops, and other checks.

The following variables are available in the template you will use to construct a body:

Response data:

  • .resp_headers
  • .resp_body
  • .resp_status

Request data:

  • .req_params
  • .req_headers
  • .req_querystring
  • .req_path

See their usage below.

.resp_headers (no-op required)

The variable {{ .resp_headers }} contains all the response headers returned by the backend when you use no-op. The variable will be empty if you use another encoding in the output_encoding.

Given the nature of headers and the specificities of templates, you should know a few things to work efficiently with them.

Headers can be according to its RFC specification multi-value. It means that a single header key can coexist with several values, or said otherwise, you can pass the same header several times in a request or response. This is why the variable .resp_headers is a map with all the header keys, but it uses an array for their values, even if there is only one.

For instance, the backend sends the header Cache-Control: "public, max-age=60". To use a familiar language with most readers, if it were Javascript notation, our variable would be resp_headers["Cache-Control"][0] = "public, max-age=60".

In a template, that would be like {{ .resp_headers.Cache-Control.0}}, only that this syntax is wrong. The word Cache-Control contains a minus sign - that is an operator. Accessing a key in a map with special characters needs the index function.

In all, here’s an example that returns all the headers in the response and the specific header Cache-Control (which is an array):

    "all_headers": {{ toJson .resp_headers }},
    "cache-control": {{ toJson (index .resp_headers "Cache-Control") }}

.resp_status (no-op required)

The response’s status code is an integer returned by the {{ .resp_status }} variable when you use no-op encoding. The response status allows us to do conditional responses.

Sometimes, we want to return a custom template when the status code is unexpected. Here’s an example of a template that checks that the status code is a 200, and if it is not, returns a different JSON object:

{{-  if eq 200 .resp_status -}}
    {{-  toJson .resp_body -}}
{{- else -}}
    "system": "is down"
{{- end -}}


The response body contains the data from the response. It works with any encoding. When the encoding is no-op, KrakenD will attempt to read the body (despite it’s been told to do no-operation) and parse it following the Content-Type indications of the backend. If the backend does not return a Content-Type header or an unsupported type, you won’t be able to access its data.

The configuration option content_type is what you return to the end-user, and it does not need to match what KrakenD gets from the backend header Content-Type, so they are entirely different things. The .req_body is initially empty unless the following requirements are met:

The following Content-Type headers are the ones KrakenD can parse to extract its data for working with it: - application/json (default) - application/xml - text/xml - text/plain

Here is an example of a template that takes parts of a response body to build a new one:

    "message": "{{.resp_body.some_string}}",
    "message2": {{toJson .resp_body.some_string}},
    "number": {{.resp_body.some_integer}},
    "array": {{ toJson .resp_body.some_array}}

Notice that since you are writing a JSON response by hand, you must take care of quotes, or use the toJson function to do it automatically for you. Here are a few hints:

  • If you directly access a variable that is not set, like {{ .res_body.unexisting }}, the template engine will print <no value>, and this can break the format if unquoted.
  • Instead, if you access a variable that is not set through toJSON, the value is null, a valid value for a JSON object.

Another problem you might face is that you see an error like this in the logs:

KRAKEND ERROR: [ENDPOINT: /test] invalid character 'm' looking for beginning of value

The m stands for the wordmap[...], which indicates that you are printing the native Go data structure in the template instead of its JSON value.

.req_params, .req_headers, .req_querystring, and .req_path

In addition to the backend response, you can access parameters passed by the user and inject them into the response, or even check them for conditional output. The variables {{ .req_params }}, {{ .req_headers }}, {{ .req_querystring }}, and {{ .req_path }} contain information passed in the user request. You can return to the end-user data that was contained in the original request or even make checks inside the template for conditional responses.

The usage of these three variables is documented in the request generator, which uses the same template engine and contains numerous examples of how to access data with special characters and other useful information.

Response body transformation example

Let’s show how this works with a testable model.

We want to design a JSON response from scratch for an endpoint and embed a few fields from a call to the GitHub API. The response we want to get is:

    "hi": "there!",
    "github": {

We want the first field hard coded; then we want a, b, and c, which is a loop, and then a few properties from a Github call, but not all.

Here is the configuration (you can test it, it is fully functional):

    "version": 3,
    "$schema": "",
    "endpoints": [
            "endpoint": "/test",
            "backend": [
                    "url_pattern": "/users/alombarte",
                    "host": [""],
                    "extra_config": {
                        "modifier/response-body-generator": {
                            "path": "custom_template.tmpl",
                            "debug": true

As you can see above, there is a path custom_template.tmpl that we will also save next to our krakend.json file. It has this content:

    pick: Fields to pick from the response body
{{- $returned_data := pick .resp_body "login" "blog" -}}
{{/* Print the response */}}
    "hi": "there!",
    {{- range (list "a" "b" "c" ) -}}
    "{{.}}": "{{.}}",
    {{- end -}}
    "github": {{ toJson $returned_data }}

This is mostly understanding templates, but let’s dissect it:

  • We want our colleagues to know what this does, so we add comments {{/* .... */}}
  • We set a variable $returned_data that uses the pick function, which creates a new dictionary with the selected fields. The pick function extracts the fields from the .resp_body, which contains all the fields from Github.
  • Then, we print the response and write the opening and closing curly braces because we will write JSON content.
  • The hi there key and value are hardcoded in the template
  • Then we have an iteration (range) over a list ["a","b","c"]
  • Inside the range, we use {{.}}, which contains the element we are iterating (a,b, and c)
  • Finally, we write the github key, and as value, we use toJson, which converts the response data we selected to JSON

You can test this configuration and play with it.

Debugging the template

While working with the response body generator modifier, you might find it useful to set the debug flag to true. This flag (that you should not use in production) outputs the following information in the console (when the debug level is DEBUG):

  • All the variables available in the template
  • The final generated body, after compiling the template and injecting the variables
  • The content type to send to the backend server

Use the flag for faster development! But remove it in production. It is designed for developer reading of the logs (multiline content) and not for machine processing of the lines.

When something is not working, read carefully the log, as in case the templates cannot be rendered or found (the relative path could be different than you expect), you will see lines showing the problem:

KRAKEND DEBUG: [BACKEND: /foo][body-generator] open ./body.json.tmpl: no such file or directory

Embedding templates in base64

You can embed the template in the configuration as a base64 instead of referencing it as an external file. There are several ways you can do this.

Written inline in the template using flexible configuration:

"modifier/response-body-generator": {
      "template": "{{ `{
          "id": "{{ .req_params.Id }}",
          "message": "User said {{ .req_body.text }}"
          }` | b64enc }}",
      "content_type": "application/json",
      "debug": true

As you can see, the backtick delimiters write the template as it is, and at the end, it pipes it to the b64enc function.

Loaded as a partial template with base64 encoding and flexible configuration:

"modifier/response-body-generator": {
      "template": "{{ include "body.json.tmpl" | b64enc }}",
      "content_type": "application/json",
      "debug": true

Copy and paste the value from a terminal:

Base64 encode of a template 
$base64 -w 0 body.json.tmpl

Notice that we are adding -w 0 because we don’t want new lines that would break the configuration.


Unresolved issues?

The documentation is only a piece of the help you can get! Whether you are looking for Open Source or Enterprise support, see more support channels that can help you.