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JWT Validation

Document updated on Feb 21, 2021

Protect endpoints from public usage by validating JWT tokens generated by any industry-standard OpenID Connect (OIDC) integration.

Before digging any further, some answers to frequently asked questions:

  1. KrakenD does not generate the tokens itself. Still, you can plug it into any SaaS or self-hosted OpenID Identity Provider (IdP) using industry standards (e.g.: Auth0, Azure AD, Google Firebase, Keycloak, etc.)

  2. KrakenD does not need to validate all calls using your IdP. KrakenD validates every incoming call’s signature and it doesn’t make token introspection (asking the IdP data about the token owner).

  3. If you don’t have an identity server, you can still use your classic monolith/backend login system and adapt it to return a JWT payload (which is a simple JSON). From here, let KrakenD sign the token for you and start using tokens right away.

  4. Your self-hosted identity server doesn’t need to be exposed to the Internet, as it can live behind KrakenD and let the token generation requests be proxied through KrakenD. If you use a SaaS solution, then it’s exposed.

Key concepts

KrakenD uses the JSON Web Token specification (JWT), an industry-standard representing claims securely between two parties. A JWT is an encoded JSON object containing key-value pairs of attributes signed by a trusted authority. It carries the information your end-users pass to the system to be recognized as legitimate users with other metadata.

All tokens transmitted between users and KrakenD have to be signed using JWS, to make sure they are legitimate and not forged by an attacker. JWS represents digitally signed content using JSON data structures that are base64url encoded using the format header.payload.signature.

Finally, KrakenD needs to retrieve from the trusted authority (your Identity Provider) the keys that let the system validate the signature. These keys are transmitted between KrakenD and the IdP using the JWK format, a JSON object representing a set of cryptographic keys. Depending on the system and implementation you have in your IdP, objects will use one or another algorithm. JWA represents the set of algorithms you can use to sign your tokens.

The introduction above is very superficial; the recommended read is the RFC:

JWT tokens definition

KrakenD uses standard JWT tokens to protect endpoints, using JSON Web Signature (JWS), to check the tokens’ digital signature integrity of the contained claims and defending against attacks using tampered tokens.

A JWT token is a base64 encoded string with the structure header.payload.signature.

A typical request to an endpoint requiring JWT validation includes a Bearer in the Authorization header:

$GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIXVCJ9.(truncated).ktIOfzak2ekD7IrCa9-UiO4QA

Or instead, you can send the token inside a cookie (see cookie_key).

JWT header requirements

When KrakenD decodes the base64 token string passed in the Bearer or a cookie, it expects to find in its header section the following three fields:

  "alg": "RS256",
  "typ": "JWT",

The alg and kid values depend on your implementation, but they must be present.


Make sure you are declaring the right kid in your JWT. Paste a token in a debugger. to find out.

The value provided in the kid must match with the kid declared at the jwk-url or jwk_local_path.

The example above used this public key, notice how the kid matches both the single key present in the JWK document and the token header.

KrakenD is built with security in mind and uses JWS (instead of plain JWT or JWE), and the kid points to the right key in the JWS. This is why this entry is mandatory to validate your tokens.

Basic JWT validation

The JWT validation must be present inside every endpoint definition needing it. If several endpoints are going to require JWT validation consider using the flexible configuration to avoid repetitive declarations.

Enable the JWT validation by adding the namespace "" inside the extra_config of the desired endpoint.

For instance, to protect the endpoint /protected/resource:

    "endpoint": "/protected/resource",
    "extra_config": {
        "": {
            "alg": "RS256",
            "audience": [""],
            "roles_key": "",
            "roles": ["user", "admin"],
            "jwk-url": ""
    "backend": [
        "url_pattern": "/"

This configuration makes sure that:

  • The token is well-formed and didn’t expire
  • The token has a valid signature
  • The role of the user is either user or admin (taken from a key in the JWT payload named
  • The token is not revoked in the bloom filter (see revoking tokens)

JWT validation settings

The following settings are available for JWT validation. There are a lot of options, although generally only the fields alg and jwk-url or jwk_local_path are mandatory, and the rest of the keys can be added or not at your best convenience or depending on other options.

These options are for the extra_config’s namespace "" placed in every endpoint (use flexible configuration to avoid code repetition):

  • alg (recognized string): The hashing algorithm used by the issuer. See the hashing algorithms section for a comprehensive list of supported algorithms.
  • jwk-url (string): The URL to the JWK endpoint with the public keys used to verify the token’s authenticity and integrity.
  • jwk_local_path (string): Local path to the JWK public keys. Instead of pointing to an external URL (jwk-url) the public keys are kept locally, in a plain JWK file (security alert!), or encrypted. When encrypted, also add:
    • secret_url (url): An URL with a custom scheme using one of the supported providers (e.g.: awskms://keyID) (see providers below)
    • cypher_key (string): The cyphering key.
  • cache (boolean): Set this value to true to store the required keys (from the JWK descriptor) in memory for the next cache_duration period and avoid hammering the key server, recommended for performance. The cache can store up to 100 different public keys simultaneously.
  • cache_duration (int): Change the default duration of 15 minutes. Value in seconds.
  • audience (list): Set when you want to reject tokens that do not contain the given audience.
  • roles_key (string): When validating users through roles, provide the key name inside the JWT payload that lists their roles. If this key is nested inside another object, use the dot notation . to traverse each level. E.g.: resource_access.myclient.roles represents the payload {resource_access: { myclient: { roles: ["myrole"] } } .
  • roles (list): When set, the JWT token not having at least one of the listed roles are rejected.
  • roles_key_is_nested (bool): If the roles key is using a nested object using the . dot notation must be set to true in order to traverse the object.
  • scopes (list): A list of scopes to validate. Make sure to use a list [] in the config but, when passing the token, the scopes should be separated by spaces, e.g: "my_scopes": "resource1:action1 resource3:action7".
  • scopes_key: The key name where the scopes can be found. The key can be a nested object using the . dot notation, e.g.: data.data2.scopes
  • scopes_matcher (string): Valid options are all or any. When all is used, every single scope defined in the endpoint must be present in the token. Otherwise, any matching scope will let you pass.
  • issuer (string): When set, tokens not matching the issuer are rejected.
  • cookie_key (string): Add the key name of the cookie containing the token when it is not passed in the headers
  • disable_jwk_security (boolean): When true, disables security of the JWK client and allows insecure connections (plain HTTP) to download the keys. Useful for development environments.
  • jwk_fingerprints (strings list): A list of fingerprints (the certificate’s unique identifier) for certificate pinning and avoid man-in-the-middle attacks. Add fingerprints in base64 format.
  • cipher_suites (integers list): Override the default cipher suites. Use it if you want to enforce an even higher security standard.
  • jwk_local_ca (string): Path to the CA’s certificate that verifies a secure connection when downloading the JWK. Use when not recognized by the system (e.g., self-signed certificates).
  • propagate-claims (list): Enables passing claims in the backend’s request header (see below)
  • key_identify_strategy (string): Allows strategies other than kid to load keys. Allowed values are: kid, x5t, kid_x5t

For the full list of recognized algorithms and cipher suites, scroll down to the end of the document.

Here there is an example using an external jwk-url:

"endpoint": "/foo"
"extra_config": {
    "": {
        "alg": "RS256",
        "jwk-url": "https://url/to/jwks.json",
        "cache": true,
        "audience": [
        "roles_key": "department",
        "roles_key_is_nested": false,
        "roles": [
        "scopes_key": "my_scopes",
        "scopes_matcher": "any",
        "scopes": [
        "issuer": "",
        "cookie_key": "TOKEN",
        "disable_jwk_security": true,
        "jwk_fingerprints": [
        "cipher_suites": [
            10, 47, 53

Validation process

KrakenD does the following validation to let users hit protected endpoints:

  • The jwk-url must be accessible by KrakenD at all times (caching is available)
  • The token is well formed
  • The kid in the header is listed in the jwk-url or jwk_local_path.
  • The content of the JWK Keys (k) is base64 urlencoded
  • The algorithm alg is supported by KrakenD and matches exactly the one used in the endpoint definition.
  • The token hasn’t expired
  • The signature is valid.
  • The given issuer matches (if present in the configuration)
  • The given audience matches (if present in the configuration)
  • The given claims are within the endpoint accepted roles (if present in the configuration))

The configuration allows you to define the set of required roles. A user who passes a token with roles A and B, can access an endpoint requiring "roles": ["A","C"] as it has one of the required options (A).

If the token is expired, the signature doesn’t match, the required claims do not match, or the token is revoked, a 401 Unauthorized is returned.

When the token doesn’t include the defined ACL’s required roles, a 403 Forbidden is returned.

When you generate tokens for end-users, make sure to set a low expiration. Tokens are supposed to have short lives and are recommended to expire in a few minutes or hours.

Accepted providers for encrypting payloads

When using a jwk_local_path the secret_url scheme accepts different providers:

Local secrets

The local secrets require an URL with the following scheme:


The URL host must be base64 encoded and must decode to exactly 32 bytes. Here is an example of the extra_config:


This config will use the key smGbjm71Nxd1Ig5FS0wj9SlbzAIrnolCz9bQQ6uAhl4= for decrypting de cypher_key and then decrypting the content of the file ./jwt.txt.

See this test to understand how to generate and encrypt payloads.

Amazon KMS


The URL Host + Path are used as the key ID, which can be in the form of an Amazon Resource Name (ARN), alias name, or alias ARN. See for more details. Note that ARNs may contain “:” characters, which cannot be escaped in the Host part of a URL, so the awskms:///<ARN> form should be used.

More information about AWS KMS

Azure’s Key Vault


The credentials are taken from the environment unless the AZURE_KEYVAULT_AUTH_VIA_CLI environment variable is set to true, in which case it uses the az command line.

More information about Azure Key Vault

Google Cloud KMS


You can take the URL from the GCP console.

Hashicorp’s Vault


Environment variables VAULT_SERVER_URL and VAULT_SERVER_TOKEN are used.

Passing claims to the backend URL

Since KrakenD 1.2.0, it is possible to use data present in the claims to inject it into the backend’s final URL. The notation of the url_pattern field includes the parsing of {JWT.some_claim}, where some_claim is an attribute of your claim.

For instance, when your JWT payload is represented by something like this:

    "sub": "1234567890",
    "name": "Mr. KrakenD"

Having a backend defined like this:

    "url_pattern": "/foo/{JWT.sub}",
    "method": "POST"

The call to your backend would produce the request:

POST /foo/1234567890

Keep in mind that this syntax in the url_pattern field is only available if the backend loads the extra_config "" and that it does not work with nested attributes in the payload.

If KrakenD can’t replace the claim’s content for any reason, the backend receives a request to the literal URL /foo/{JWT.sub}.

Propagate JWT claims as request headers

Since KrakenD 1.3.0, it is possible to forward claims in a JWT as request headers. It is a common use case to have, for instance, the sub claim added as an X-User header to the request.

Important: The endpoint headers_to_pass needs to be set as well, so the backend can see it.

"extra_config": {
        "": {
          "propagate-claims": [
            ["sub", "x-user"]

In this case, the sub claim’s value will be added as x-user header to the request. If the claim does not exist, the mapping is just skipped.

A complete running example

The KrakenD Playground demonstrates how to protect endpoints using JWT and includes two examples ready to use:

  • Integration with an external third party using a Single Page Application from Auth0
  • Integration with an internal identity provider service (mocked) using a symmetric key algorithm and a signer middleware.

To try it, clone the playground and follow the README.

Supported hashing algorithms and cipher suites

Hashing algorithms

Accepted values for the alg field are:

  • EdDSA: EdDSA
  • HS256: HS256 - HMAC using SHA-256
  • HS384: HS384 - HMAC using SHA-384
  • HS512: HS512 - HMAC using SHA-512
  • RS256: RS256 - RSASSA-PKCS-v1.5 using SHA-256
  • RS384: RS384 - RSASSA-PKCS-v1.5 using SHA-384
  • RS512: RS512 - RSASSA-PKCS-v1.5 using SHA-512
  • ES256: ES256 - ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256
  • ES384: ES384 - ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384
  • ES512: ES512 - ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512
  • PS256: PS256 - RSASSA-PSS using SHA256 and MGF1-SHA256
  • PS384: PS384 - RSASSA-PSS using SHA384 and MGF1-SHA384
  • PS512: PS512 - RSASSA-PSS using SHA512 and MGF1-SHA512

Cipher suites

Accepted values for cipher suites are:

  • 5: TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
  • 60: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
  • 156: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
  • 157: TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
  • 49169: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
  • 49191: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256

Default suites are:

  • 49199: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
  • 49200: TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384

Unresolved issues?

The documentation is only a piece of the help you can get! Whether you are looking for Open Source or Enterprise support, see more support channels that can help you.